The American-led war in Afghanistan, which has lasted nearly two decades, is almost over. There will undoubtedly be much written on the issue in the years ahead, but two things are evident in the immediate aftermath. Adaptation is the eternal fact that the US military must learn and Afghanistan’s parting lesson to the US. America has been defeated in Afghanistan and is retreating. The reason is simple: when institutional holy cows were slaughtered by operational reality, top American commanders were unable to adjust.
The Crossroads of Special Operations