Modernization expenditures are forcing the Army to more strategically allocate their funding. The Army foresees three distinct challenges that must be kept in mind as air and naval capabilities are upgraded. Contesting Russian aggression along NATO’s eastern frontier will require a large, forward-postured, ground force while defeating China in the Pacific calls for more flexible answers. To best prepare for all other threats, a degree of hedging with globally responsive all-purpose forces will be involved. While some solutions are applicable to all three challenges, many are not making them easy targets for elimination when making budget cuts.