The Pentagon is working to ensure triumph in the beginning stages of a clash with China or Russia. Great power wars, on the other hand, rarely finish after the first shot. The United States must be prepared for long-term, grinding fights that could last weeks or months, and it must consider how those battles will finish as well as how they will start. The US might try to terminate a long-running battle with China by imposing harsh economic and technological sanctions or by imposing a maritime blockade that prevents oil supplies and other vital imports. However, it may be necessary to deter an opponent from launching crippling cyberattacks or resorting to nuclear escalation using a combination of toughness and moderation.