The human rights monitor Amnesty International has accused Niger, Mali, and Burkina Faso for committing potential war crimes. These war crimes have left over 200 people missing or dead this year. The Islamist groups started appearing in Mali in 2012 and have spread to other countries. Their presence has caused many to die or try to seek refuge from these unstable countries. Outside influences have tried to intervene including French and United Nation troops but these countries still continue to struggle.