In 2009, a conference was held by General Jim Mattis and Maj. General Robert Scales. Generals and sergeants from all ground services attended, as well as ‘Tier 1’ Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) commandos from the Rangers, Delta and the SEALs. The purpose of the conference was to bring attention to small infantry units. Scales says, “those are the ones that do the most fighting and dying in the Middle East.” The question, “how do we help these soldiers better prepare” was soon asked. Steps have been taken to improve the effectiveness of close combat soldiers, such as having infantrymen complete six months of extra training and incentivizing quality recruits with larger enlistment bonuses. While these efforts help, it doesn’t fully solve the problem. Scale believes a program should be created that ‘bottles’ the competencies, and brings special operations training to infantrymen.