President Donald Trump prompted confusion before the vote with a tweet claiming the programme had been used to “abuse” his campaign.
The legislation passed 256-164, despite opposition from both sides. The ‘no’ votes included 45 Republicans.
Critics say the bill actually expands government powers to spy on Americans.
The act’s passage follows a year-long debate about the proper scope of US electronic wiretapping after the 2013 leaks of surveillance secrets by former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden.