He spent some time placing part of the blame for the region’s violence on external actors. “Today’s anti-Westernism is the offspring of yesterday’s colonialism,” Rouhani said. “Today’s anti-Westernism is a reaction to yesterday’s racism.”
While Rouhani did not name any Western powers specifically, he did make some thinly veiled references to U.S. covert action in the region. “Certain intelligence agencies have put blades in the hands of madmen who now spare no one,” Rouhani said.
Rouhani emphasized that the campaign against extremism should be taken on by countries in the Middle East, not by Western powers. He said that Islamic nations must take the lead in fighting the threat, but he welcomed help from the international community. “The right solution to this quandary comes from within the region,” he said, “in a regionally provided solution with international support, and not from outside.”
But even for his criticism of the West, some of Rouhani’s remarks echoed those of President Obama, who spoke in front of the same body Wednesday morning. Like Obama, Rouhani emphasized a need to get at the root causes of extremism, which Rouhani identified as “poverty, unemployment, discrimination, humiliation, and injustice.” And he said that extremist groups like the Islamic State are misinterpreting Islam and cannot be called Muslim, a statement Obama also made on Wednesday.
Rouhani’s speech comes a year after he and President Obama were rumored to meet in the halls of the U.N. at the 2013 General Assembly. They did not meet in person, but they did speak by phone before Rouhani left New York, marking the first time Iranian and American leaders talked since Iran’s Islamic Revolution in 1979.
Rouhani also discussed the ongoing negotiations over Iran’s nuclear program. The deadline to reach a nuclear agreement is Nov. 24, and recent progress has been slow. But Rouhani expressed confidence that negotiators could make a deal before that date, saying that Iran is serious about the process. “If our interlocutors are also equally motivated and flexible,” he said, “we can reach a longstanding agreement within the time remaining.”